Pujari, R. & Banerjee, G., 2021. “Impact of prebiotics on immune response: from the bench to the clinic”. Immunology & Cell Biology, 99, pp. 255-273.
Impact of prebiotics on immune response: from the bench to the clinic
The prebiotic effect
- Prebiotics interact with several parts of the immune system.
- There are two parts of the immune system: 1) Our innate immune system; 2) Our acquired immune system over time, due to exposures and experiences. Prebiotics offer benefits in both parts.
- Prebiotics, either alone or through the production of short chain fatty acids can stimulate an anti-inflammatory response.
- Studies support that prebiotics contribute to maintaining gut permeability and also in controlling inflammation within the gut.
- The short chain fatty acids which are produced in the gut due to prebiotic fermentation, stimulate the inflammasome pathway. This pathway is essential for maintaining the gut cell wall integrity.
- Interestingly, the short chain fatty acids also impact specific immune cells that relate to the gut. These include macrophages and regulatory T cells.
- The impact of butyrate on macrophages is so profound as it alters the epigenetic changes and reducers pro-inflammatory markers.